pLaNeT kUchiNg

August 7, 2009

Cuci Tangan

Filed under: Info KEsihaTAn — planetkuching @ 6:48 am

Mencuci tangan adalah kaedah terbaik untuk mencegah kejadian jangkitan penyakit berjangkit.

7 Langkah Mencuci Tangan dengan Air dan Sabun

  1. Basahkan tangan anda dan ratakan sabun dengan sempurna
  2. Gosok kedua-dua tapak tangan
  3. Gosok setiap jari dan celah jari
  4. Gosok kuku di tapak tangan
  5. Gosok belakang tangan dan celah jari
  6. Cuci tangan dengan air bersih
  7. Keringkan tangan dengan kain bersih atau tisu

4 langkah Mencuci Tangan Dengan Bahan Pencuci Tangan Berasaskan Alkohol (Hand Sanitizer/Hand Rub)

  1. Tanggalkan barang kemas/balut bahagian luka
  2. Keringkan tangan dengan tisu/tuala bersih
  3. Letak bahan pencuci ke tapak tangan
  4. Gosok tangan dengan bahan pencuci selama 1 minit

Beri perhatian apabila menggosok belakang tangan, jari, kuku, hujung jari dan celah jari

Amalkan Mencuci Tangan:

  • Selepas bersin/batuk/menghembus hidung
  • Selepas menyentuh permukaan objek yang terdapat di tempat-tempat awam seperti kaunter tiket, kaunter pertanyaan, tombol pintu (door knob), rel tangga, pemegang tangan dalam pengangkutan awam (bas/keretapi/LRT)
  • Selepas berjabat tangan dengan individu yang mengalami gejala selesema
  • Bila-bila masa tangan anda kotor

Virus Influenza A (H1N1)

Filed under: Info KEsihaTAn — planetkuching @ 1:28 am

Virus influenza A (H1N1) adalah virus baru dan semua orang tiada daya ketahanan kepada jangkitan ini.  Vaksin bagi melindungi jangkitan juga belum ada.  Jika penularan dalam komuniti tidak dikawal dengan baik, penyakit yang mudah menular ini (contangious) akan merebak dengan cepat serta melibatkan kejadian kes-kes yang tinggi atau banyak dan jika keadaan ini tidak terkawal kejadian kes berkomplikasi akan berlaku termasuk kematian.

Sebagaimana yang dilaporkan sebelum ini, untuk membendung wabak pandemik di Malaysia (to slow down the spread), aktiviti kawalan dan pencegahan yang sedia-ada akan diteruskan melalui langkah-langkah pencegahan dan mitigasi. Langkah pencegahan dan mitigasi ini perlu diambil bagi memastikan kes-kes yang berisiko dikenal pasti dan diambil tindakan awal untuk mengelakkan komplikasi. Orang ramai adalah diminta untuk sama-sama mengambil bahagian dalam menangani pandemik ini.

Aktiviti-aktiviti yang sedia ada akan dikaji dari masa ke semasa untuk memastikan pelaksanaan aktiviti kawalan  dan pencegahan yang cekap dan berkesan agar penularan kes  di Malaysia dapat dikurangkan ke tahap yang minima.

 

Apa itu Fasa Mitigasi (Peredaan)

Aktiviti mitigasi adalah tindakan membendung wabak pandemik H1N1 di Malaysia dengan memperkukuhkan langkah-langkah pencegahan dan kawalan seperti mengamalkan kebersihan diri, kerap mencuci tangan dan mengamalkan adab batuk yang sesuai. 

Strategi utama fasa ini adalah untuk mengurangkan kesengsaraan dan kematian akibat penyakit ini, melambatkan jangkitan penyakit dan mengurangkan kesan terhadap gangguan perkhidmatan utama.

 

Siapakah yang berisiko tinggi akibat jangkitan Influenza A (H1N1)?

  1. Kanak-kanak berusia kurang 5 tahun
  2. Individu berusia 65 tahun dan ke atas
  3. Kanak-kanak dan remaja (< 18 tahun) yang menggunakan terapi aspirin untuk jangkamasa yang panjang
  4. Wanita mengandung
  5. Dewasa dan kanak-kanak dengan asma, penyakit pernafasan kronik obstruktif, kegagalan organ, penyakit kardiovascular, hepatik, heamatologikal, neurologik, neuromuscular atau masalah metabolik seperti Diabetes Mellitus 
  6. Dewasa dan kanak-kanan yang mengalami daya ketahanan yang rendah (immunosuppression)
  7. Individu yang menginap di rumah kebajikan dan institusi penjagaan yang lain

 

Peranan Masyarakat Semasa Fasa Mitigasi

Masyarakat perlu mengetahui cara virus ini merebak.

  • Influenza A (H1N1) virus berjangkit dari manusia kepada manusia melalui titisan cecair, (yang dikeluarkan semasa bercakap, batuk atau bersin).
  • Mana-mana individu yang berhubung rapat (lebih kurang 1 meter) dengan individu yang mengalami gejala selesema (demam, bersin, batuk, hidung berair, menggigil, sakit sendi dan lain-lain adalah berisiko untuk mendapat jangkitan penyakit akibat dari titisan cecair.
  • Oleh itu, masyarakat perlu mengambil langkah pencegahan berikut:
    1. Amalkan kebersihan diri dan adab batuk yang betul
    2. Amalkan kawalan jangkitan sama ada di rumah, tempat kerja atau pengangkutan awam
    3. Peranan penutup mulut dan hidung (mask) dalam masyarakat
      • Tiada bukti kukuh mengenai keberkesanan memakai mask di tempat awam. Namun, ia telah digunakan dalam ruang yang sesak/tertutup apabila berhubung dengan individu yang mengalami gejala selesema
      • Individu boleh memakai penutup mulut dan hidung (surgical mask) di rumah dan di kalangan masyarakat, terutamanya jika mereka berhubung rapat dengan individu yang mengalami gejala influenza, contohnya semasa menjaga ahli keluarga yang sakit.
      • Penggunaan mask membolehkan individu yang mengalami gejala influenza untuk menutup mulut dan hidung mereka bagi menghalang titisan cecair dari tersebar,  salah satu kaedah adab batuk yang betul/baik.
      • Surgical mask juga disyorkan kepada golongan yang berisiko tinggi apabila berada di kawasan yang sesak.
    4. Pesakit dinasihatkan untuk tinggal di rumah, elakkan berhubung rapat dengan ahli keluarga yang lain serta mengambil langkah kawalan dan pencegahan dari menjangkiti mereka yang menjaga pesakit.
    5. Sekiranya gejala influenza semakin teruk, pesakit hendaklah SEGERA mendapatkan rawatan di hospital.
    6. Sekiranya individu yang tergolong dalam kumpulan yang berisiko tinggi mengalami gejala influenza, segera dapatkan rawatan awal
    7. Elakkan berada di kawasan sesak dan seboleh-bolehnya tangguhkan/ batalkan / kurangkan menghadiri majlis keramaian
    8. Dapatkan maklumat terkini mengenai situasi semasa dari sumber yang boleh dipercayai seperti Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia dan Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO)

sumber rujukan :

www.h1n1.moh.gov.my

June 12, 2009

New Influenza A(H1N1)

Filed under: Info KEsihaTAn — planetkuching @ 2:22 am

What is the new influenza A(H1N1)?

Updated 11 June 2009

What is the new influenza A(H1N1)?

This is a new influenza A(H1N1) virus that has never before circulated among humans. This virus is not related to previous or current human seasonal influenza viruses.

How do people become infected with the virus?

The virus is spread from person-to-person. It is transmitted as easily as the normal seasonal flu and can be passed to other people by exposure to infected droplets expelled by coughing or sneezing that can be inhaled, or that can contaminate hands or surfaces.

To prevent spread, people who are ill should cover their mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, stay home when they are unwell, clean their hands regularly, and keep some distance from healthy people, as much as possible.

There are no known instances of people getting infected by exposure to pigs or other animals.

The place of origin of the virus is unknown.

What are the signs and symptoms of infection?

Signs of influenza A(H1N1) are flu-like, including fever, cough, headache, muscle and joint pain, sore throat and runny nose, and sometimes vomiting and diarrhoea.

Why are we so worried about this flu when hundreds of thousands die every year from seasonal epidemics?

Seasonal influenza occurs every year and the viruses change each year – but many people have some immunity to the circulating virus which helps limit infections. Some countries also use seasonal influenza vaccines to reduce illness and deaths.

But influenza A(H1N1) is a new virus and one to which most people have no or little immunity and, therefore, this virus could cause more infections than are seen with seasonal flu. WHO is working closely with manufacturers to expedite the development of a safe and effective vaccine but it will be some months before it is available.

The new influenza A(H1N1) appears to be as contagious as seasonal influenza, and is spreading fast particularly among young people (from ages 10 to 45). The severity of the disease ranges from very mild symptoms to severe illnesses that can result in death. The majority of people who contract the virus experience the milder disease and recover without antiviral treatment or medical care. Of the more serious cases, more than half of hospitalized people had underlying health conditions or weak immune systems.

Most people experience mild illness and recover at home. When should someone seek medical care?

A person should seek medical care if they experience shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, or if a fever continues more than three days. For parents with a young child who is ill, seek medical care if a child has fast or labored breathing, continuing fever or convulsions (seizures).

Supportive care at home – resting, drinking plenty of fluids and using a pain reliever for aches – is adequate for recovery in most cases. (A non-aspirin pain reliever should be used by children and young adults because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome.)

Phase 6 – Pandemic

Filed under: Info KEsihaTAn — planetkuching @ 2:18 am

What is phase 6?

 

What is phase 6?

Phase 6 is a pandemic, according to the WHO definition.

 

What about severity?

At this time, WHO considers the overall severity of the influenza pandemic to be moderate. This assessment is based on scientific evidence available to WHO, as well as input from its Member States on the pandemic’s impact on their health systems, and their social and economic functioning.

The moderate assessment reflects that:

  • Most people recover from infection without the need for hospitalization or medical care.
  • Overall, national levels of severe illness from influenza A(H1N1) appear similar to levels seen during local seasonal influenza periods, although high levels of disease have occurred in some local areas and institutions.
  • Overall, hospitals and health care systems in most countries have been able to cope with the numbers of people seeking care, although some facilities and systems have been stressed in some localities.

WHO is concerned about current patterns of serious cases and deaths that are occurring primarily among young persons, including the previously healthy and those with pre-existing medical conditions or pregnancy.

Large outbreaks of disease have not yet been reported in many countries, and the full clinical spectrum of disease is not yet known.

Assessing the severity of an influenza pandemic

Considerations for assessing the severity [pdf 318kb]

Does WHO expect the severity of the pandemic to change over time?

The severity of pandemics can change over time and differ by location or population.

Close monitoring of the disease and timely and regular sharing of information between WHO and its Member States during the pandemic period is essential for evaluating future severity assessments, if needed.

Future severity assessments would reflect one or a combination of the following factors:

  • changes in the virus,
  • underlying vulnerabilities, or
  • limitations in health system capacities.

The pandemic is early in its evolution and many countries have not yet been substantially affected.

More about the new influenza A(H1N1)

What is WHO doing to respond?

WHO continues to help all countries respond to the situation. The world cannot let down its guard and WHO must help the world remain and become better prepared.

WHO’s support to countries takes three main forms: technical guidance, materials support, and training of health care system personnel.

WHO’s primary concern is to strengthen and support health systems in countries with less resources. Health systems need to be able to prevent, detect, treat and mitigate cases of illness associated with this virus.

WHO is also working to make stocks of medicines (such as antivirals and antibiotics) and an eventual pandemic vaccine more accessible and affordable to developing countries.

Both antivirals and vaccines have important roles in treatment and prevention respectively. However, existing stocks of antivirals are unlikely to meet the demand. And vaccines may be developed, but it will some months.

Therefore, rational use of the limited resources will be essential. And medicines are only part of the response. WHO is also deploying diagnostic kits, medicines and masks and gloves for health care settings, teams of scientific experts, and medical technicians so countries in need can respond to local epidemics.

A pandemic sets national authorities in motion to implement preparedness plans, identify cases as efficiently as possible, and minimize serious illness and deaths with proper treatment.

The goal is to reduce the impact of the pandemic on society.

Guidance for national authorities

What do I do now? What actions should I look for in my community?

Stay informed. Go to reliable sources of information, including your Ministry of Health, to learn what you can do to protect yourself and stay updated as the pandemic evolves. Community-specific information is available from local or national health authorities.

You can also continue to visit the WHO web site for simple prevention practices and general advice.

WHO is not recommending travel restrictions nor does WHO have evidence of risk from eating cooked pork.

Advice to traveller

Filed under: Info KEsihaTAn — planetkuching @ 2:09 am

WHO recommendations relating to travellers coming from and going to countries experiencing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza

November 2005

These recommendations are in line with phase 3 in the WHO 6-phase scale of pandemic alert: human infections with a novel influenza virus subtype are occurring, but the virus does not spread efficiently and sustainably among humans. These recommendations may change according to the change in the epidemiological situation and related risk assessments.

WHO guidance for the application of measures before and during different phases of an influenza pandemic are summarized in the WHO global influenza preparedness plan issued in 2005.

Advice to countries

WHO does not recommend any restrictions on travel to any areas affected by H5N1 avian influenza

WHO does not recommend travel restrictions to areas experiencing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in birds, including countries which have reported associated cases of human infection.

WHO does not recommend screening of travellers coming from H5N1 affected areas

WHO does not, at present, recommend the routine screening of travellers coming from affected areas. Local authorities may, however, usefully provide information to travellers on risks, risk avoidance, symptoms, and when and where to report should these symptoms develop.

Advice to travellers

WHO advises travellers to avoid contact with high-risk environments in affected countries

Travellers to areas affected by avian influenza in birds are not considered to be at elevated risk of infection unless direct and un-protected exposure to infected birds (including feathers, faeces and under-cooked meat and egg products) occurs.

WHO continues to recommend that travellers to affected areas should avoid contact with live animal markets and poultry farms, and any free-ranging or caged poultry. Large amounts of the virus are known to be excreted in the droppings from infected birds. Populations in affected countries are advised to avoid contact with dead migratory birds or wild birds showing signs of disease.

Direct contact with infected poultry, or surfaces and objects contaminated by their droppings, is considered the main route of human infection. Exposure risk is considered highest during slaughter, defeathering, butchering, and preparation of poultry for cooking. There is no evidence that properly cooked poultry or poultry products can be a source of infection.

Travellers should contact their local health providers or national health authorities for supplementary information.

May 22, 2009

BAHAyA AIR COND…

Filed under: Info KEsihaTAn — planetkuching @ 12:20 am

Dilarang menghidupkan pendingin hawa sebaik menaiki kereta..!

Bukalah tingkap terlebih dahulu sebaik memasuki kereta anda dan jangan sama sekali menghidupkan pendingin hawa. Berpandukan kepada kajian yang dijalankan, dashboard, sofa, pewangi udara menghasilkan Benzene, sejenis toksin yang menyebabkan kanser (carcinogen – ia dapat dikenalpasti melalui bau yang terhasil dari haba bahan plastik di dalam kereta). Disamping menyebabkan kanser, ia juga bertindak sebagai racun bagi tulang, menyebabkan anemia dan mengurangkan sel darah putih. Tindakan ini jika dibiar berlarutan akan menyebabkan Leukemia, meningkatkan risiko menghadapi kanser di samping punca keguguran.

image001

 

Kadar pendedahan Benzene yang dibenarkan ialah 50 mg bagi setiap kaki persegi. Kereta jika diparkir di kawasan bebumbung dengan tingkap tertutup menghasilkan 400-800 mg Benzene. Jika dibiarkan dikawasan yang terdedah dengan tingkap yang tertutup pada suhu 60 darjah fahrenheit, tahap Benzene boleh meningkkat sehingga 2000-4000 mg, iaitu 40 kali dari tahap yang dibenarkan… dan penumpang di dalamnya akan menyedut toksik yang berlebih2an secara tidak sedar.

image002

image003

 

Cara yang dicadangkan untuk mengelakkan perkara ini dari berterusan ialah dengan membuka tingkap dan pintu terlebih dahulu untuk memberi udara di dalam beredar keluar. Benzene adalah sejenis toksik yang boleh mencemar buah pinggang dan hati, dan sukar pula bagi tubuh manusia untuk menyahkeluarkan toksik tersebut apabila.

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